Again, in most animals, the strategies are not conscious decisions, but responses to stimuli such as hunger, thirst, asphyxiation, fear, or exhaustion. An example is a moth in England. Thus you eat when hungry, drink when thirsty, fight for air, run from dangerous situations, sleep.
Hunger, thirst, asphyxiation, fear, and exhaustion are physical sensations that cause instinctive physical reactions.
Extraversion E — degree to which people are outgoing and are interactive with people, which is mediated by the activation of the reticular formation.
Prairie dogs dig their burrows with multiple entrances and exits so if a predator comes in one door, the dogs can leave through another.
This has great clinical significance for treatment of personality disorders. Once the threshold is broken the signal is transmitted. After a few generations of these darker moths surviving and passing on their genes, the standard color changed to mottled black, and the moth, now blending into the dark bark, survives.
However, in the 19th century factories in this area began to belch out soot from their chimneys that settled on the trees, changing the tree bark from mottled white to mottled black. If conditions change so the instinctive strategy is dangerous rather than beneficial, the animal can Biological basis of behavior.
With a rush, the lioness bursts into a run to take down the doe. Of course, nothing stays the same forever. The reason we do Biological basis of behavior why our approach to self-preservation is different from all other creatures.
That is, the young learn them Biological basis of behavior older animals that learned them from their ancestors. It is the combination and degree of each of these elements that create niches.
It secretes digestive enzymes that are released into the digestive system while it also contains the Islets of Langerhans which secrete insulin into the blood.
Genetic and molecular correlations to personality[ edit Biological basis of behavior Neurotransmitters[ edit ] Dopamine and Serotonin pathways The biology-based personality theories discussed below are based on correlating personality traits with behavioral systems related to motivation, reward, and punishment.
Specifically, study participants with at least one copy of the 7-repeat variant of the dopamine receptor D4 gene had higher scores of self-reported extraversion. According to Hebbian theorythese connections are strengthened and maintained through repeated stimulation between neurons.
Thus, self-preservation is a much more complicated proposition than among other animals. Eating to satisfy hunger is more than just finding proper vegetation or hunting; shelter for rest and recuperation is more than finding a convenient cave or nest; avoiding predators is difficult because it is often hard if not impossible to tell what is a predator the only real predators on humans are other humans.
Niches alter through geologic, climatic and, in the present day, man-made changes in land, water and air. The latter includes mentally or economically healthy. In general, it appears the higher the complexity of the nervous system of the animal, the more likely strategies are learned rather than instinctive.
Indeed, the physical manifestations of the stress of the workplace, such as ulcers, headaches, nervous breakdowns, is often considered a result of the fight or flight syndrome at work on the body, while the mind is required to remain under stimuli that no other creature would willing accept.
These survival strategies are adaptations to niche conditions, but unlike physical changes are not necessarily genetic changes. On a broad level, this involves the autonomic nervous system, fear-processing circuits in the amygdalathe reward pathway from the ventral tegmental area VTA to the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex.
Sometimes the signal goes to the soma or the axon of the next cell instead of the dendrite Arnold Wittig The invention of agriculture and the domestication of animals improved the food supply; the building of dwellings enhanced shelter from the elements; science and medicine have greatly increased human lifespan and the quality of that life.
We have an incredibly sophisticated method of interacting -- speech. The soma makes use of nutrients to supply energy for neuronal activity. Many axons are sheathed with tubes of myelinwhich is a fatty material.
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a neuron and another cell. This is excellent against wolves, but deadly when faced with spears and guns perfect, however, for the human survival strategy of group hunting with weapons.
Neurotransmitter [ edit ] The terminal button at the end of the axon holds the synaptic vesicles. Synapse are one way junctions between neurons and other cells.
The somatic connect the central nervous system to sensory organs such as the eye and ear and muscles, while the autonomic connect other organs of the body, blood vessels and glands.
Myelinated sheaths help transmit information quickly and efficiently.Psychology: Themes and Variations, Sixth Edition, Briefer Version, Wayne Weiten Chapter 3 The Biological Bases of Behavior. The Biological Basis of Behavior Program (BBB) is an interdisciplinary major in which students explore biological, psychological, computational and clinical approaches to understand the nervous system as the biological basis of behavior, as well as perception, memory, motivation, and emotion.
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the biological basis of human behavior The three main elements biology contributes to human behavior are: 1) self-preservation; 2) the reason for self-preservation, reproduction; and 3) a method to enhance self-preservation and reproduction, greed.
The physical structure of the body plays an important role in the behavior of an individual. The most important physical structure for psychologists is the nervous system. The nervous system carries orders from the brain and spinal cord to various glands and muscles, it also carries signals from stimuli receptors to the spinal cord and brain.Download